THE ARCTIC ICE
It seems incredible that where the temperature does not rise above about 10, the animals of the Arctic can live and reproduce. Nevertheless, even the most cold and inhospitable parts of the Earth inhabited. The fact that some animals have adapted in a special way to preserve the heat of his own body. For example, the body of penguins under the wings densely covered with warm fur, and the fur of polar bears is very thick and waterproof. In addition, all polar animals under the skin is a thick layer of fat.
Life for animals in Antarctica is only possible on the coast. The inner part of the continent is uninhabited.
The polar bear.
At the end of autumn, the female polar bear digs in the snow den. In December - January are born, as a rule, two bears, but only in the spring they first come out of hibernation.
Baby polar bears are born very small, blind, deaf, and completely defenseless. So he spent two years living with the mother. The skin of a bear is very tight, waterproof and completely white, making it easily finds refuge among white surrounding ice. He's fine floats - this contributes to the membrane, which are connected to the pads of his paws. The polar bear is the largest predator in the world.
Polar bears usually weigh from 150 to 500 pounds. The weight of some representatives of more than 700 pounds.
On the cold ground and endless ice, drifting in the Arctic, live different pinniped species; these include lions, seals and walruses. The origin of this terrestrial animals that have adapted to the marine environment: in the course of evolution, their body has adapted to life in water. Unlike cetaceans, pinnipeds this adjustment changed only partially. So the front paws fur seals have evolved into flippers, which they can rely on the land to lift the upper part of the body; the seals have learnt to move on the ground, crawling on the belly.
In pinnipeds huge nostrils, and for a short time, they can inhale the amount of air needed to stay under water for about 10 minutes.
Pinnipeds feed not only fish, but also crustaceans, shellfish and krill, composed of tiny shrimp.
Fur like a sea lion, but he has a thicker skin, and the muzzle is shorter and sharper. The male is much larger than females and can weigh four times as much.
elephant. The largest species of pinnipeds in the world: the mass of the male can reach 3500 pounds. It is easily distinguished from females by the swelling on the head, similar to a short trunk, from which he got his name.
Sea leopard. His spotted skin, this seal is reminiscent of a feline, from whom he borrowed the name. Sea leopard is very aggressive and can sometimes eat even a fellow seal, if it is less than it.
This mammal with long fangs lives in the Arctic seas, making short seasonal migrations. Walrus-male huge: it can weigh 1 500 kg, while the mass of the females rarely reaches 1000 pounds. The walrus massive wrinkled body, covered with sparse bristles.
Strong voice walrus reminds simultaneously and the roar of a lion, and the lowing of a bull; during sleep, on the ice or in the water, he loudly snoring and her. Can spend hours relaxing, lounging in the sun. Walrus irritable and obstinate, but he will not be slow to come to the aid of his brother, which attack the hunters.
Long fangs are not interchangeable in the life of a walrus: he uses them to protect themselves from enemies and burawa seabed; with walrus tusks vkarabkivatsya on the shore and moves on the ice or land. Long fangs at larger representatives reaches one meter!
Little walrus suck mother for two years, and in the next two years, they remain under her protection.
Under the skin of a walrus thick layer of fat, which serves him simultaneously and protection from the cold, and stockpile in case of starvation.
Penguins are birds, but their wings are not adapted for flight is too short. With wings penguins swim like a fish feast using fins. There are penguins only in the southern hemisphere. Live in large colonies on land, but some types can make long migrations in the open sea.
Generally, penguins lay only one egg. The young penguins find refuge from the cold in the lower folds of the parent of the abdomen. Plumage penguin Chicks usually dark brown, over time, they acquire the characteristic black-and-white coloration as adults.
In the colonies of Emperor penguins sometimes there are 300 thousand individuals.