Not to fight on two fronts, on August 23, 1939 Germany was signed with the USSR non-aggression Pact, and 1 September Germany invaded Poland, triggering world war II. England and France, associated with Poland Union contracts, 3 September declared war on Germany, but effective aid to Poland, they did not. In 1940, the Nazis occupied Denmark and Norway, and in the spring of 1941 invaded Yugoslavia, Greece and O. Crete.
Preparing for war against Russia, the Nazis were carefully and very secretive. In the mid 1940 Nazi strategists have received a secret order of the Fuhrer to begin developing a plan for the invasion of the Soviet Union, received a code name "operation Barbarossa". Addressing before the attack on the Soviet Union officers of his army, Hitler said: "we are Talking about the fight at the destruction of... the War is strikingly different from the war in the West. On the East violence is a boon for the future..." Fascists had previously developed a program predatory actions on Soviet territory, has created a special team and equipment to kill civilians.
The Soviet military command, given information about the cooking of Germany to attack the USSR and data military intelligence about focusing on the Western borders of a large number of German troops, two years increased the number of troops to the Western border districts in two and a half times. In connection with the growing threat of war in may - early June of 1941 the number of divisions and corps of border military districts was moved closer to the border. But many of the initiated activities to be completed by the beginning of the war failed. So, were not completed an organizational restructuring and re-equipment of the army and Navy, was not finished strengthening of new frontiers. By the beginning of the war the troops of the border military districts did not have time to take defensive positions, and aviation is not relocated to the field airfields.
The turning point in the war, it is not one phenomenon, but a process. He started in the battle for Moscow, and ended with the battle of Kursk. Marshal of the USSR Ammability said that three major milestone was on this road: the beginning of radical change began to put the battle for Moscow, the decisive contribution made to the battle for Stalingrad and completed this process Kursk battle.
The fall of Moscow , Hitler and his generals were tied to the achievement of the ultimate goals of the war - the complete defeat of the Soviet Union. Without taking could be no victory over our nation. In the first stage, the Germans tried to capture Moscow on the move, enter it forced March. Did not work! Then they focused their main forces and started a special offensive operation "Typhoon"that, like the terrible hurricane force sweep away everything in its path and break in Moscow! These goals enemy understood the Soviet Supreme command. And so, from the very first days, his main attention it paid to Moscow.
The beginning of the end for the Wehrmacht was the battle of Moscow. To this conclusion came and German military historians. The result of the battle of Moscow was finally wrecked lightning war plan. And protracted war the German economy lead was not able. Then for the first time the Wehrmacht was intercepted strategic initiative. However, the Wehrmacht was still strong and with the help of allies in the summer could lead only offensive in the southern sector of the front.
The climax was the battle of Stalingrad, when the strategic initiative had passed to the red Army. The result of the battle of Stalingrad the German Wehrmacht had suffered a severe defeat, making him the first time during the war, was forced to leave the vast territory, captured with great difficulty in the summer of 1942. After the battle of Stalingrad severe crisis situations for the red Army did not arise.
The result of the battle at Kursk strategic initiative finally moved to the red Army and the Wehrmacht was forced to constantly retreat. According to the German military historians, operation Bagration was the largest defeat of the German army in its history.
In the first operations of the great Patriotic war, which was held on the same opponent in the Baltic States, Belorussia and Western Ukraine, the ratio of loss can not hit. It was about 1 : 25 - 1 : 32 am, unfortunately, not in our favor. During the defensive phase of the battle for Moscow loss was in the range of 1 : 10 to 1 : 12, also in favor of the Wehrmacht. In the final operations of the great Patriotic war, for example, the Berlin operation, the ratio of losses was 1 : 10 in favor of the red Army. In General, the problem of military losses, as the red Army and the Wehrmacht, as of today, unfortunately, still far from logical conclusion. The main thing we should not forget that the victory was not expensive price and demanded the maximum stress from our people.