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FIRST YEAR / Daily child care

Child care 1 year - a responsible job. This article provides tips on how to do baby care. I hope that after reading the article you will be to care for a newborn child with great pleasure!

1. Bathing

2. Navel

3. Genitals

4. Spring

5. Clothing, fresh air and sun

6. Sleep

7. When a child is not sleeping

8. Chair

1. Bathing

Bathing is necessary before feeding.

Usually mothers find it helpful to bathe the child in front of a 10-hour evening feeding. However, it is possible to bathe before any feeding (but not after it, as after feeding the child usually falls asleep). Many fathers gladly bathe their children over 6-hour or 10-hour evening feeding. When the child becomes older and will go to sleep immediately after dinner, you can bathe him before going to sleep. That the child did not feel hunger, until you give him a bath, give him before bathing juice. To bathe the child needs in a warm room, for example in the kitchen.

Washing.

According to long-established custom, the child bathe or wash off completely every day. However, a particular need for such frequent bathing is not. In cool weather it is enough to bathe the child once or twice a week, provided that the face and lower torso are kept clean, i.e. washed in those days, when the child does not bathe.

Many inexperienced mother initially afraid to bathe the child. The child seems so helpless. In addition, it is slippery, especially when lathered. The child is uncomfortable and scary in the bath, because it is difficult to maintain, yet it is so small. Therefore, in the first few weeks or even months, you can wash it until you and the child will not feel confident. Some mothers prefer to wash the child, until he begins to sit, and then they begin to bathe him in the tub. Usually, until the newborn is not healed navel, its not bathe. Wash the child either on the table or holding it on your lap. If you wash it on the table, posterite the oilcloth, and under the oilcloth put something soft (big pillow, folded blanket, and so on), so that a small child is not rolled on the table, it can be scared of it. Wash the head and face with cotton wool or a soft cloth and clean water. With soap head wash once or twice a week. Body lightly lather by hand with a cloth or cotton wool. Then at least twice, wipe it with cotton or cloth soaked in water, paying special attention to skin folds.

Bathing in the tub.

Before you start swimming, make sure you have prepared everything you need. If you forget the towel, you have to go after him with a wet baby in her arms. Don't forget to remove the watch. Put on the apron, so as not to soak the dress. Prepare the following items: soap (any non-alkaline), cloth (or cotton wool), towel, cotton wool to clean the nose and ears of the child, if necessary, oil or powder, if you use them, vests, diapers.

To bathe the child in the enameled basin or bath. You can bathe in the usual big tub, but it is difficult for mother to bend down so low. For convenience, you can put the tray on the table, around which you will be sitting, or on something else (above table), about which you will stand. The water temperature should be approximately the same as the body temperature (32-38°). In the beginning, until you learn to support their child in the water, pour in a dish quite a bit of water. If you use a metal dish, lay at the bottom of the diaper, that the bottom was not slippery. First, wash the child's face fleece without soap, then wash the head. Double rinse off the soap with a wet cotton wool. Wool should not be too wet, soapy water to not get in eyes. Then your Taurus child's hand.

Wipe baby soft towel, but no RUB and blot. If you bathe him until the navel has not yet healed, then after bathing, wipe the navel sterile cotton wool.

The majority of children in a few weeks start to get great pleasure from bathing. Do not rush the child and enjoy, bathing him, as he enjoys bathing.

Ears, nose, eyes, mouth, nails.

Wash only the ear, but not the auditory canal. Sulfur is formed and accumulates in the ear canal to protect and clean it. The ear canal is covered with tiny, almost invisible hairs that slowly move the sulfur and the accumulated dirt out.

The eyes are washed with tears, which are formed continuously, not only when the baby is crying. So healthy eye does not need washing.

Typically, the mouth is also not in need of care.

The newborn nails should be cut when he sleeps. More convenient to use clippers for nails and not scissors.

The nose has excellent system of self-purification. Tiny hairs in the nose move the mucus and dirt out, where they accumulate on the long hairs almost at the exit, causing a tickling sensation in the nose, and the child or sneezes, or rubs his nose, freeing it from accumulated mucus and dirt.

Wiping baby after bathing, clean his nose made flagellum with a damp cotton wool. Do this quickly.

If the nose is clogged with dried mucus.

In this case, the child is difficult to breathe. The older children and the adults in this scenario pant. But a newborn is hard to breathe through the mouth. If the nose is clogged, clean it as described.

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2. Navel

The healing of the navel.

Developing in the womb, the child is fed through the blood vessels of the umbilical cord. Immediately after birth, the doctor cuts the umbilical cord of the child. The remaining piece dries up and disappears, usually within a week, and sometimes later. After separation of the umbilical cord remains an open area which heals in a few days, and in exceptional cases - in a few weeks. If the navel heals slowly, may be formed of granular tissue. But it is not a disease and will soon pass. The navel does not require any treatment. It just need to be clean and dry, so there were not dangerous bacteria. If the navel is dry, it is covered by tropicali and then heals. Modern doctors recommend not bandaged navel so that it remains dry. Sometimes doctors are advised not to bathe the baby until it's healed navel. But if you are after bathing, wipe the navel sterile cotton wool, then everything will be okay. Keep a wet diaper is not touched unhealed navel, as this may cause irritation.

If the navel is getting wet and festers, it should be a daily wipe down with alcohol and even more thoroughly to ensure that it does not touch the wet diaper. If the belly button and the skin around it will turn red, then got an infection and you should seek immediate medical attention. As long as the doctor does not examine a sore belly button, make it compress.

If the crust on healing navel will tear your clothes, can be 1-2 drops of blood. Even if you don't care.

Umbilical hernia.

After the skin of the navel has healed inside is still hollow space (umbilical ring), where before there were blood vessels. When the baby is crying, a part of his intestine fills this hollow space and pushes the navel. This is called an umbilical hernia. If the umbilical ring is small, the navel is quite a bit (0.5 cm).

Small umbilical ring closes in a few weeks (or months). If the umbilical ring is large, the navel will be 1 cm and it closes only after a few months (or even years).

Previously, it was believed that elastic bandages help to close the umbilical ring. It is now known that this measure does nothing. Do not bother bandaging navel. Umbilical hernia is not dangerous. She rarely bothers the child as other types of hernia.

When under the skin of the abdomen appears fatty layer, navel finds himself embroiled in the stomach. But this will happen after 2-3 years. As a young child's navel (looking like a rose Bud) protrudes above the surface of the abdomen. This should not be confused with hernia. Hernia palpated under the skin, like a soft balloon. When the hernia of the navel is much further.

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3. Genitals

The easiest and most common method is nothing to do with the sexual organs of boys. The disadvantage of it is that there is a risk of infection of the foreskin, but with careful care for a child, this occurs only rarely. As for the girls, the cleaning is considered as mandatory hygienic procedure.

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4. Rodnick

Do not be afraid to damage it.

Soft land on the head of a child is the junction of four bones that form the upper part of the skull. Gradually the bones will grow together and the spring will disappear. The dimensions of the spring is different for each child. Do not be afraid, if your child has a large spring. He later just closes. In some children the fontanelles are closed at 9 months; they usually grow in 12-18 months, sometimes only 2 years. In good light you can see how the spring pulsates to the rhythm of pulsation of the heart.

Mother too afraid to damage the spring: it is protected by a durable as canvas, film and virtually damage it impossible.

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5. Clothing, fresh air and sun

How to dress your child at room temperature.

This is a very difficult question for the doctor. I can give only a very approximate Board. A baby weighing less than 2.5 kg, must be heated from the outside (or even kept in the incubator), as he is still unable to control their body temperature. The baby, weighing from 2.5 to 4 kg, does not require additional heating. He will feel fine at room temperature (20-22°C) under one or two light blankets, wearing cotton underwear.

By the time when the weight of the child will reach 4 kg, the body will learn to better regulate body temperature. In addition, under the skin forms a layer of fat that will help him keep warm. Now while child is sleeping in his room in cool weather may be about 16°. There is no need to reduce the room temperature is below 16°. At this temperature, the child must be covered warmer.

Room for games and food can be 20-22°. This temperature is suitable for babies weighing more than 2.5 kg, and for older children and adults. At this temperature, the child can be covered with a light blanket, and while it is small, wear a light jacket over vests. The mother in most cases too putting on children, which is very bad. If the child is always too warmly dressed, his body loses its ability to adapt to temperature changes. Such a child rather cold. Therefore it is better to wear less than too much. Observe the child. When it gets cold, his cheeks lose the paint and he can even cry from the cold. Complexion is the most accurate way to know how cold does to a child. Don't see what he's cold fingers. Better feel neck or legs or hands.

Putting on a baby sweater or shirt over your head, remember that the head is not round like a ball, and ovoid. So first gather her sweater and then pull his head from the back forward. And when you take off the sweater, remove the hands from the sleeves, then pull the sweater primarily from the face, while the opposite side of the hole holding the back of his neck. Then remove the sweater at all.

Not kotite child.

The best blankets - wool or synthetic, they are simultaneously and very warm, and very light. But even better knitted shawl. In them it is more convenient to wrap the baby and you can wrap it as many layers as required temperatures, as they are thinner than regular blankets. It is not recommended to protect the child's thick, heavy blankets, for example quilted.

All blankets and sheets should be large enough that they can be well tuck under the mattress, then the child will not be disclosed. Placemats and lining need to fill under the mattress or fasten it with the help of ribbons attached to their corners and tied for the bars back or for a bed frame. The mattress should be relatively flat and hard, so that the child does not sit in a bent position. The mattress in the stroller to close the bottom of the stroller. A young child does not need a pillow or in bed or in a wheelchair.

Baby bonnets must be knitted. If this cap and will slip on the face during sleep, the child will be able to breathe through it. You can use any caps on the condition that the mother is near.

Many mothers use sleeping bags, which are fastened with a zipper, and tighten the neck and tied to the corners of the bed. Of course, these bags are very convenient, but I would not recommend to use them for two reasons: first, the child is at risk to strangle himself, being tied to the bed and simultaneously tightened around the throat; secondly, some psychologists believe that if a child is a lot of time in infancy, when formed his emotions, conducts bound, helpless and immobile, it can ruin his spiritual world and take away his sense of ease.

You can sew for baby sleeping suit of thick blankets. Or you can use the jumpsuit, which grew your eldest child. You can also make a bag that will wear safety pins on the level of the armpit; when a child starts to wear one or two blouses. Even if the child stand in such a bag, it will still be well covered. This bag can be made from old blankets. Longitudinal seam, leave the top one-third. Putting the baby in the bag, saponite the two halves firmly clasped body, and fasten the two safety pins on the back where it won't get them. If the weather is very cold, wear two bags.

The fresh air.

Changes in temperature cause the body learns to adapt to cold and to heat. Bank clerk rather cold in the cold weather than the bum who used to any weather. Cool and cold air increases appetite, Romanic cheeks and invigorates people of any age. A child residing in a warm room, usually pale and appetite it bad.

Cold air warm land. Therefore, when such air is heated with Central heating, it becomes drier, especially if the room temperature is above 22°. Dry, hot air dries the moisture in the nose and contributes to the inflammation of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. This causes the child anxiety and, apparently, generally reduces the ability of his body to fight infections.

Every child (and every adult) it is useful to spend time outdoors 2-3 hours a day, especially when the house has Central heating.

During sleep, you should open the window in the room so that the temperature fell to 16°. When a child is not sleeping, the room should be 20-22°. You should to have a home thermometer and look at it several times a day until learn to feel when the temperature exceeds 22°.

Sometimes, inexperienced mother, overly worrying about the child and seeking to prevent a cold, keep it in a hot room, warmly covered. In the result of the child in winter appears prickly heat.

When and how to walk with the child.

Newborn baby weighing 4.5 kg or more, it is useful to fresh air for 2-3 hours a day. The baby, weighing 3.5 kg and more, can certainly a breath of fresh air at a temperature of 16° and above. The temperature is not so important in itself. Cold and moist air cools more than the dry air of the same temperature, and when the wind even colder.

The baby, weighing 10.5 kg, can walk at a temperature below zero, if there is no wind, preferably in the sun. In winter it is best to walk with the child in the middle of the day (between 10-hour morning and 2 hours a day feeding). If you live out of town and you have your own patio when the weather permits, you can put the child on the street for a longer time. Let his face be some time in the sun, if it gives him no concern.

As the child grows, increased periods of wakefulness and human society he becomes all the more necessary. So try not to leave him alone for more than an hour, if he sleeps. Even when the child entertains himself, about it should be people.

If you live in the city, you will have to carry the child in the stroller on the street. Warm underwear, trousers and woolen stockings really brighten up the parents of these watches. If you love to be outdoors and the time you allow, the more you will walk with your baby, the better.

In summer, hot weather, if your apartment will become very hot, try to find a cool place in the yard. The longer there will be a child during sleep, the better. If your apartment cool and hot in the street, still take the child into the air at least two hours: an hour in the morning and an hour in the afternoon.

When you adjust the child three meals a day, you obviously have to change hours of walking. But the rule remains the same: let the child walk at least 2-3 hours a day.

The older a child becomes, the greater his interest in the environment. If after dinner you go out for a walk with him, he may not sleep as before. So after lunch, you will have to put him to sleep in the room. In this case, you will have little time for a walk in the afternoon, especially in the winter. You can walk with your child in the morning, 1-2 hours in the afternoon for another hour. Watch morning walk depend on the hours of his morning sleep. Some of the children in the second half of the first year fall asleep almost immediately after Breakfast, and others later, at about 11 am. If your child can't sleep in the stroller during a walk, to sleep you have to put him to bed, and to walk with him in the remaining time.

The sun and sun bathing.

Direct sunlight contains ultraviolet rays that contribute to the formation of vitamin D directly in the skin. It is therefore reasonable to leave the child in the sun for some time. But don't forget about the three precautions. First, sunbathing should be increased gradually to avoid burns, especially with the clean, clear air and strong sun. Avoid too long sunbathing, even if the skin is gradually tans. Itself the skin's ability to tan - protective agent against excessive sunlight. The body needs a moderate amount of sunlight, he is unable to deal with their surplus. Strong sunburn as dangerous as heat. Keep this in mind and do not leave your child in the sun too long. When the weight of the child will reach 4.5 kg, start in warm weather to irradiate his Taurus sun. Moderately well-fed child will not freeze if there will be scantily clad. In cool but Sunny weather, leave naked legs only. The face of a little child should be protected from strong sun.

In winter, if you wish, you can arrange a sun bath near an open window if the room is warm and there is no draft. First, sunbathing should be 2 minutes. Gradually increase this time by 2 minutes each day. Half of that time allocate back, and half - tummy. Increasing sunbathing, do not get carried away. I would not advise to keep the baby in the sun more than 30-40 minutes, especially in the summer. Make sure that the baby is not overheated in the sun. It is better to place it on a flat surface (on a Mat on the ground or on the floor), and not in a wheelchair. If it will blow air, it will not overheat. If the child is flushed, so he's too hot.

If sunlight is intense (e.g., on the beach), the child must remain in the shadows all the time, at least the first 2-3 days. When too delicate skin sunburn can occur even in the shade, so strong can be reflected rays. If the child is already sitting and crawling, then the sun must protect his head with Panamco. Remember that sunburn is only a few hours.

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6. Sleep

How much the child needs to sleep.

Mothers often ask this question. The answer can only give the child himself. One child needs to sleep a lot, and the other very little. If the child is well-fed, well-groomed, a lot happens in the fresh air and sleeping in a cool room, you can let him decide how much to sleep. Most babies, if they are full and your stomach is working properly, sleep from feeding to feeding. But some of the children from birth, little sleep, and not because they are worried. You don't have to take any measures.

The older a child becomes, the less he sleeps. Usually the first period of wakefulness starts at around 4-5 PM. Over time, the child will be awake and at other times of the day. Each child their sleep schedule. By the end of the first year of life he will sleep during the day most likely only 2 times. And between year and one and a half years he will go on a one-day sleep. Only in infancy, you can be sure that the baby is sleeping as much as he wants. In 2 years the child is a difficult human being.

He can sleep less than is required by the body, due to the excitation, anxiety and other reasons.

Falling asleep.

It is advisable to accustom the child to the idea that immediately after eating he should sleep. Some kids love to play after eating. I would advise you to try to wean them from the habit. Train your child to sleep in his bed without anyone's presence, at least after 3 months, when it will cease to bother colic and gas.

Most children used both to silence and to moderate noise. So no need to tiptoe and whisper. This way you only teach him to be silent and it will be easy to Wake up from unexpected sounds. If the child is accustomed to normal household sounds, you can receive guests in the next room, watch TV or listen to the radio. You can even enter the room the baby without waking him.

On the back or stomach.

Most children prefer to sleep on my stomach since birth, particularly those suffering from gas, as the pressure on the abdomen partially alleviates this pain. Other children are sleeping on the belly and on the back, or only on the back. Lying on the back has two drawbacks. First, if the child vomits, then he can choke on their own vomit; secondly, when a baby sleeps on his back, his head is always turned towards the opposite wall, so it can be flattened on one side. It will not hurt his brain and the shape of the head will eventually be corrected, but not immediately (it may take about 2 years). To avoid deformation of the head can, putting the child to bed his head in one direction, then in another, which previously were his feet. It will still turn his head to the side, where he likes to watch, and, thus, his head will lie half the time on one side, and half on the other. A few weeks after the birth of a child chooses a pose on his or her back or on her stomach and get him to change this position difficult.

It is desirable to teach children from birth to sleep on his stomach, if he doesn't mind. Later, when he learns to roll over, he will be able to change the pose, if you want.

After 6 months, if possible, place the child in a separate room.

Child birth can sleep in a separate room, if it's convenient for you and if you are close enough to hear him crying. If at the outset of his crib in the room of the parents, then in 6 months it is desirable to move the child to another room. I would not recommend to leave the child at night in parents room after 9 months. The child gets used to sleep with their parents and they will be afraid to sleep in their absence. What he is older, the harder it is to translate it in a separate room.

In addition, the child may be frightened intercourse parents, he will not understand what is going on and get scared. Parents feel that the child is asleep, but child psychiatrists argue that often the child wakes up and lies silently in fear, and the parents don't notice. However, do not think that the risk to frighten the child or make him too dependent on their parents so great. If you won't keep the child, except his room, cordon off his bed with a curtain or a screen.

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7. When a child is not sleeping

Calm friendliness should be the main feature of your relationship with your child.

When you feed him, clothe, bathe, talk to him, change diapers, hold hands or just stay with him in the same room, he realizes how much he means to you, and you for him. When you caress, hug and show him that he is the best baby in the world, you make him happy. Weasel has the same value for the emotional development of the child, as milk is to the physical. Maybe that's why we adults always strive to deliver the child pleasure, instinctively starting to Lisp, nod your head, etc. So behave even solid and unsociable people. The main drawback of parental inexperience - overly serious attitude to parental responsibilities, which prevents to enjoy motherhood. In this case, both the mother and the child are deprived of great joy in life.

Of course, I don't mean that you should without a break to chat with your child all the time when he is not sleeping, or constantly shaking and tickle him. It will only tire, and in the end will lead to internal constraints or spoiled. And for the child and for the mother is more important than the gentle friendliness. It manifests itself in the warmth of your hands, in a loving peaceful expression on your face in gentle intonation of your voice.

Friendliness without pampering.

Of course, the child is good to be near mother (brothers and sisters, if they have one)when he's awake, so he could see his mother said, turning to her, to hear her voice. But it is unreasonable to continuously carry the child in her arms or to entertain him, not leaving one single minute. Society the mother gives the child a great pleasure and benefits, but at the same time, the child must learn to take himself. It happens that the mother is so adores her firstborn son, that keeps him on his hands, plays with him all the time, until it sleeps. The child can get used to the constant attention of the mother and will gradually become more demanding.

The toys.

The older a child becomes, the more increased periods of wakefulness, especially in the second half of the day. Until the children are asleep, they are looking for someone's company and they want to do something. 2, 3 and 4 months babies love to look at the bright moving objects. On the walk they take pleasure in watching the movements of leaves, with the play of light and shadows. At home they learn their pens, Wallpaper. You can hang bright plastic toys on a string stretched between the bed railing. Hang them high enough (but not the nose), but so that he can get them when you begin to reach for objects. You can make a pinwheel made of cardboard, covered with colored paper, which rotate at the slightest breeze. Hang them on the ceiling or to the chandelier, so that the child could not reach them because they are too fragile to play and are not suitable for chewing. You can also hang household utensils: spoons, plastic cups, etc. Remember that in the end everyone gets the child into his mouth. About 6 months the main joy for him will be enough to keep and take in the mouth a variety of items: rattles, dolls, toy animals, household items. Do not allow children to take it in your mouth and chew items painted with paint containing lead. Don't let him play with celluloid toys, as it can bite off small, sharp pieces. Do not let the baby beads and other small items that he can swallow and choke on. From rubber toys remove the metal tweeter.

In the afternoon, when the child gets tired of lying in the crib, put him in the playpen that you place near where you work or just sitting. If you're going to use the arena, begin to teach him the child with 3-4 months before he will learn to sit and crawl and knows the beauty of free movement. Otherwise, the child will perceive the arena as the cell. When he will learn to sit and crawl, he will enjoy going from one subject to another.

When the child is bored to be to the arena, put him at a table or in a chair-rocking chair. And when he tired and there, release it on the floor. It both useful and enjoyable.

Manege.

To have the arena is not necessary. Some psychologists and doctors do not approve of this idea, considering that the arena does not give the child the opportunity to explore the world and develop independence. This, of course, not proven. The arena is a very practical and useful thing, especially for a busy mother. Placed in the kitchen or in the room where the mother, the arena gives the child the opportunity to be with people and to see everything that is happening around. Later the child will have fun throwing toys out of the playpen and receiving them back.

When the child begins to stand up, he will be able to cling to his hand rails, along with a solid Foundation under your feet. In good weather you can set the arena on the veranda, balcony or courtyard, where the child will observe everything.

Chair-rocking.

It can be useful when the child is able to sit up straight, and before he learns to walk. If the base of the armchair is not long enough, the child may strongly swinging to turn over. Father can fix this trouble by extending the runners of a rocking chair or limiting the amplitude of the swing. It should not be too long to keep the child in the chair-rocking chair. The child needs time to crawl and learning to stand.

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8. Chair

Meconium.

In the first 2-3 days the chair of the newborn consists of a substance called meconium, black and green, liquid and viscous. Then its color is yellow-brown. If within 2 days after birth the baby chair no, you should consult with your doctor. The chair of the child when breastfeeding.

The chair may be several or even many times a day. In the first weeks chair in the newborn may be after each feeding. Color is usually pale yellow. The consistency of the feces of a newborn usually looks like a thick soup or on the dough and practically never too hard. In the first 2-3 months the chair of the baby is that often, rarely. Some kids it happens every day and others only a day or two later. This may frighten mother, who used to think that the chair should be every day. You don't have to worry if a child feels good. Cal child was breastfed, remains soft, even if it is 2-3 days.

It happens that the child hardly pushes the feces accumulated over 2-3 days, and the consistency of it as soup. I can explain it only by the fact that cal is so thin that it does not create enough pressure on the inside of the anus. Usually at introduction of solid food in the child nutrition chair is adjusted. Talk to your doctor, he may recommend to introduce solid foods earlier. Two to four tablespoons of puree of cooked prunes will help the child. Laxatives in such cases is not necessary. Avoid to use a laxative or an enema regularly, as the child will get used to them. Try to do prunes or other solid food.

Chair in artificial feeding.

First chair is 1-4, and sometimes 6 times a day. The number of bowel movements does not matter if the consistency of the feces normal and the child is well putting on weight.

The feces of the child, feeding on cow's milk, is pale yellow or beige. However, in some infants feces reminds soft scrambled eggs or slices of cheese in a liquid medium. If the child feels well and normally putting on weight, then you have nothing to worry about. The most common difficulty that arises when artificial feeding is a predisposition to constipation. In the first months of the child on artificial feeding, rarely liquid, greenish or curds feces. If you increase the amount of sugar in the milk mixture, then the quality of the chair will deteriorate. If the chair of the newborn is characterized by the mentioned signs, you need as often as possible to show the child to the doctor. Try to avoid sugar from the diet of the child. But, if the child is always some liquid stool, and he is cheerful, well putting on weight and the doctor does not find any disease, you can treat the normal chair.

Changes in the stool.

You are convinced that if a child putting on weight and his chair is always the same, the texture and color of the feces do not matter. But if the chair has changed dramatically in quality, you should consult with your doctor. If, for example, as was viscous, and then suddenly became thinner with pieces of undigested food and became more frequent, it may be a sign of digestive disorders. If the stool was very loose, frequent, greenish in color and has a different smell, it almost certainly means an intestinal illness (diarrhea) in severe or mild. If the chair was not long, and then there was the unusual feces is hard and dry, sometimes (but not necessarily) it means the beginning of a cold or other disease. The fact that the infection not only reduces your appetite, but changes the function of the intestine. Generally speaking, changes in color and stool frequency is not as important as changes in texture and smell.

Liquid stool is often mucus, which confirms bowel disease. The slime gets in the feces, if your child has a cold or bronchitis. Often in healthy infants in the first weeks produces a lot of mucus.

When in the child nutrition introduce a new kind of vegetables, some of them may come out in the stool undigested. If the stool becomes thinner and it appears mucus, next time give him quite a bit of these vegetables. Otherwise, continue to give the same amount or gradually increase the portions until the child becomes accustomed to this kind of vegetables. From beet feces may be colored in red. Air cal can be brown or green. It doesn't mean anything.

Traces of blood on the surface of the feces suggests that the walls of the rectum is scratched too hard stool. Although it is not a disease, but still consult a doctor in order to cure the child from constipation. Constipation has an adverse effect not only on physical but also the mental condition of the child.

If Kale a lot of blood, which happens very rarely, the cause may be incorrect structure intestine or severe diarrhea, or intussusception. Immediately call a doctor or take the child to the clinic.

Benjamin Spock's "Baby and care for it"

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Additional materials:
Newborn - physiological features Newborn - physiological features

Children are born with a full set of muscles, but, like everything else, they have to Mature. This happens in the same order in which reach functional maturity nerves, they - run: starting with the muscles of the neck and going on down the trunk and towards the fingers. As they reach maturity changes and their structure. Mature muscles contain less water and more protein and minerals than immature, which provide additional strength and endurance.

Features of the body of the newborn Features of the baby's body

So, the baby was born. From the moment of birth until the cutting of the umbilical cord, the child stops directly in contact with the mother's body and begins the neonatal period, which lasts about one month. During this time the baby adapts to completely different for him the environment. During this period significant changes in his body. Some organs and systems worked during the prenatal period (heart, kidneys, endocrine glands, other respiratory organs and digestive system begin to function from the moment the baby is born.

Why is the baby crying? Baby crying Why is the baby crying? A baby crying.

A baby crying can be divided into various types, ranging from easy whining (usually just before falling asleep to thunder - Kim cry for several hours. It is understandable that when your baby cries, you wspolna - Vanir and scared. Also babies cry for a variety of reasons. When they are very young, this is the only way they can Express their needs.

Child care Child care

Usually mothers find it helpful to bathe the child in front of a 10-hour evening feeding. However, it is possible to bathe before any feeding (but not after it, as after feeding the child usually falls asleep). Many fathers gladly bathe their children over 6-hour or 10-hour evening feeding. When the child becomes older and will go to sleep immediately after dinner, you can bathe him before going to sleep. That the child did not feel hunger, until you give him a bath, give him before bathing juice. To bathe the child needs in a warm room, for example in the kitchen.

Bathing a newborn Bathing a newborn

Bathing a newborn not only supports the baby's skin clean, but has a good tempering effect. Until the baby is healed umbilical wound, bathing wipe it with a soft, damp sponge. The procedure is done in a warm room, in a convenient conditions, for example, on a special table Mat or just on his knees. The main thing is that the position of the newborn was safe and easy to communicate with him. Prepare baby soap, gentle baby shampoo, two napkins, soft towel, cotton swabs and clothing. When rubbing your baby sponge water should be pleasantly warm. The left hand slightly lift up the child, holding under the crown, and the right - wipe, starting from the top.

How to deal with a newborn How to deal with a newborn

The most difficult task facing a newborn baby during the first month of his life, to adapt to conditions outside the mother's body. Most of the time the baby is sleeping. Waking up, he starts to behave in accordance with their internal physiological state. Periods of active wakefulness, when the child is ready to take new information, rare and short-lived. Therefore it is not necessary to pre-plan lessons with a newborn, just try to seize the opportunity. This option appears when the baby is fed and is in a good mood. Remember that children have different thresholds of excitability, and if you periotome baby, he may start to worry, to scream and cry.

The food of the newborn The food of the newborn

The child, like any other person, has the instinct of hunger. If he is chronically undernourished, he will shout, demanding more milk. Trust him and talk to your doctor. If he hasn't finished his usual amount, do not insist. Consider that he wakes up because he is hungry and cries, most likely because he wants to eat. He eagerly catches mouth, nipple (or pacifier). Sucking is a serious work for the child. He may even sweat from the effort. If you take away a pacifier before he was sated, he would be yelling at them. When he will suck as much milk as he wants, he will Solovey from satiety and again falls asleep.

The introduction of solid foods in the diet of the child The introduction of solid foods in the diet of the child

Fifty years ago it was introduced only after a year. Then doctors began to try to introduce it earlier and earlier and found that children readily accept this food and she has a beneficial effect. For two reasons it makes sense to start giving solid food to a child in the first half of the first year. At this age children are still there, and being older, they become more selective. Solid food contains nutrients, especially iron, which little or no milk.

Complementary feeding for children aged 6 months Complementary feeding for children aged 6 months

Fifty years ago it was introduced only after a year. Then doctors began to try to introduce it earlier and earlier and found that children readily accept this food and she has a beneficial effect. For two reasons it makes sense to start giving solid food to a child in the first half of the first year. At this age children are still there, and being older, they become more selective. Solid food contains nutrients, especially iron, which little or no milk.

The lure. The who guidelines on breastfeeding The lure. The who guidelines on breastfeeding

Timely introduction of properly selected foods promotes good health, to improve nutritional status and physical development of infants and young children in a period of rapid growth and therefore should be the focus of the health system.

The child learns about feelings The child learns about feelings

Children who are more difficult to adapt to new conditions, or less constant in their habits, demonstrate more wary, are" less willing to smile and willing to try new foods or to meet new people or places. Difficult children are fickle habits. Even in ten years, such a child may not develop the habit of going to bed.

The choice of a Walker The choice of a Walker

There are two main types of precursory those in which children sit, and such that kids are pushing. First, for those children who are not able to move independently, the latter which often resemble small truck or can be converted into a tricycle - for those children who are already starting to walk, holding onto a support. Baby Walker - item optional, and many experts believe that the harm outweighs its benefits.

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