The winner of the quiz "Pure water" - Matkowsky Elena Leonidovna
1. Water is the only substance that occurs naturally in 3 forms: liquid(just water), ice and snow (solid state) and steam (vapor state).
2. Yes, it all depends on pressure. Sometimes the water freezes at positive temperature. This phenomenon is observed in pipelines and soil capillaries. In pipelines, the water can freeze at a temperature of +20°C. this is Due to the presence of methane in water. Since the molecules of methane is approximately 2 times larger than water molecules, they are "pushes" the water molecules, increase the distance between them, which leads to the decrease of internal pressure and increase temperature in freezing. Soil moisture similar role is played by the protein molecules. Due to the effect of protein molecules freezing point of water in the soil capillaries may increase to +4,4°C.
3. Sea water freezes at a temperature of - 1,91°C. With further increasing temperature up to 8.2°C starts the deposition of sodium sulfate, and only at a temperature of 23°C from a solution drops sodium chloride. As part of the brine during crystallization takes ice, its salinity is less than the salinity of sea water. Perennial sea ice so freshened, it is possible to obtain drinking water.
4. 46 percent of the Earth's water located in the Pacific ocean. In the Atlantic ocean - 23.9%; Indian - 20.3, and in the North-Arctic - 3.7 percent. About 70 percent of Earth is covered by water.
5. With an average depth of 4 km World ocean covers about 71% of the planet's surface and contains 97,6% of known world reserves of free water. Rivers and lakes contain 0.3% of world reserves of free water. Large stores of moisture are and glaciers, they are concentrated to 2.1% of the world's water reserves. Only 1 percent of this water is suitable for drinking.
6. In the world there is only one river, which originates near the equator and flows in a temperate zone - the Nile. For obscure reasons, most of the rivers flowing in the opposite direction.
8. You, readers =) As our ancestors did: heated on a fire or in the heat of the furnace specially prepared stones (for large containers - more, for a small - smaller), and then let these stones into the water. Wall wooden utensils bad gave heat to the external environment, and the result: one stone, the other a... - the water and boil! The stones really picked up the "special"are the same, which are suitable for the stove in the oven for a bath. They don't really crumble and do not emit harmful pollutants.
9. Blue sea and blue sky, due to the inherent characteristics of the solar beam. When a ray of sunlight penetrates into the water, the short rays of the solar spectrum - blue - scatter in all directions, giving the water a blue tint. The color of the water depends on the direction and brightness of sunlight. During sunset, the bright blue water slowly becomes Golden because the sun is at a significantly smaller angle to the horizon. Color of sea water also depends on the presence of suspended particles of organic and inorganic origin. After heavy rain the color of the water near river mouths may take a variety of shades. Different colors for the individual seas and oceans due to the presence of plankton and algae. So, reddish-brown waters of the red sea due to the presence therein of a specific species of algae.
10. Water has a crucial role in nature. In fact, because the sea was the first scene of life on Earth. We can say that all living things are made of water and organic substances. Without water people, for example, could live no more than 2-3 days, without nourishing the same substances he can live a few weeks. To ensure a normal existence, man must enter into the body of water about 2 times more weight than nutrients. The loss of the human body for more than 10% of water can lead to death. On average, in the body of plants and animals contain more than 50% of the water in the body of the jellyfish it to 96, algae 95...99, in disputes and seeds from 7 to 15%. The soil is not less than 20% water, in the body of water rights is about 65% (in the body of a newborn up to 75, the adult 60%). Different parts of the human body contain different amounts of water: the vitreous body of the eye consists of water 99%of her blood contains 83, in adipose tissue 29, skeleton 22 and even in the tooth enamel of 0.2%.
Among the existing nature of liquid water has the highest heat capacity. It makes a great impact on the climate. The main controller of the climate are the waters of the oceans and seas absorb heat in the summer, they give it in the winter. No water bodies on the ground usually leads to the formation of sharply continental climate. Due to the influence of the oceans on a large part of the globe is overweight precipitation on land over evaporation, and organisms of plants and animals get what they need for life amount of water. Water and air cover of the globe is constantly exchanging carbon dioxide with rocks, flora and fauna, which also contributes to the stabilization of the climate.
Among the existing nature of liquids surface tension of the water is second only to mercury. With surface tension of water is due to its strong wetting action (the ability to "stick" to the surface of many solid bodies). In addition, water is a universal solvent. The heat of evaporation is higher heat of vaporization any other liquid, and the heat of crystallization is second only to the ammonia.
A significant role in the life of plants play optical properties of water vapor. The fact that water vapor absorbs infrared rays with a wavelength of from 5.5 to 7 microns, which is important for protection of the soil from frost. An even more effective tool from frost is the condensation and the formation of fog: the condensation is accompanied by the release of a large amount of heat, delaying further cooling of the soil.
Knowing the physical properties of water and ice, people been using them in their practice. So, for example, is sometimes applied strip naked electric wires directly on the ice, because the conductivity of dry ice and snow is quite small. It is much smaller than the conductivity of the water.
The use of water for the human body. Water is needed to fulfill the body's many functions, getting enough water is the key to optimal health.
- Water maintains blood volume, which in turn supports the energy balance.
- Drinking sufficient fluids increases concentration and reaction time, especially during sports.
- Water increases the amount of calories burned during regular daily activities.
- Water allows you to avoid the pain in the stomach caused by concentrated preparations.
- Water rids the body of excess sodium.
Water helps in the fight against many diseases. The results of the studies show a correlation between high consumption of water and reduce the risk of the following diseases:
- The constipation.
- Urinary tract infections.
- Kidney stones.
- Cancer of the bladder.
Water helps to fine appearance. The water reaches the skin last but not least, if the body does not get enough water, which affects more noticeable on the skin, than on the health of other organs. Water hydrates the skin, leaving it
- more elastic,
- reduces the appearance of wrinkles.
Water promotes weight loss. People often confuse thirst with hunger, so they often eat instead of drink a little water. Drinking water dulls hunger.
Studies have also shown that drinking enough water
- gives you more energy during exercise,
- promotes a more efficient burning of calories during exercise,
- promotes the burning of excess fat.
Without water there would be on Earth life!