|St. George ribbon occupy the most honorable place among numerous group awards (differences) parts of the Russian army.
Order George was established in 1769. Status he was given only for specific exploits in war time "to those who... has distinguished itself principally what a courageous act or has filed a wise and for our military service tips". It was an exceptional military award.
George, the order was divided into four classes. The first degree of the order had three characters: cross star and ribbon, consisting of three black and two orange stripes, which was worn over the right shoulder under the uniform. The second degree of the order was also the star of the Grand cross, which was worn around the neck on a narrower tape. Third degree - a small cross on the neck, the fourth is a small cross in his buttonhole.
Black and orange St. George ribbons in Russia have become a symbol of military prowess and glory.
There are different opinions about the symbolism of St. George ribbons. For example, count Litta in 1833, wrote: "the immortal Queen, this order establishes believed that the tape it connects the color of the powder and the color of fire...". However, the President Andolenko, a Russian officer, who later became a General of the French army, and formed the most complete collection of drawings and descriptions of the regimental badges of the Russian army, with this explanation does not agree: "In reality, the colors of the order were state with those times when the Russian national emblem became the double-headed eagle on a Golden background... Here is how during the reign of Catherine II described the Russian coat of arms: "the black eagle, the crown, and upstairs in the middle of the great Imperial crown of gold, in the middle of the eagle George, on the white horse, conquering the serpent, the cloak and spear - yellow crown yellow, black snakes". Thus, Russian military order and in its name and on its colors had deep roots in Russian history".
St. George ribbon is awarded several distinctions, galemys military units, - George silver trumpets, banners, flags, etc. many military awards worn on St George ribbon, or it was part of the tape.
In 1806 the Russian army had entered award George's flags. In the top banner was placed George cross, under the topping was tied black and orange St. George ribbon with Znamenny brush width 1 inch (4.44 cm).
In 1855, during the Crimean war, amlaki St. George flowers appeared on the award of officer weapons. Golden weapons as a kind of reward was not less than honorable for a Russian officer, the order of George.
After the Russo-Turkish war (1877 - 1878) the Emperor Alexander II ordered the commander of the Danube and the Caucasus armies prepare presentations for awarding the most distinguished units. Information from commanders about the rendered parts of the feats were collected and submitted for consideration Cavaliers Duma of the order of St. George. In the report of the Council, in particular, stated that the most brilliant exploits of the war had Nizhny Novgorod Seversky Dragoon regiments, which have all established awards: St George standards, George pipe, double buttonholes for "military honors" on the uniforms of the staff and chief officers, George buttonholes on the uniforms of the lower ranks and insignia on hats.
Decree 11 April 1878 established a new mark of distinction, the description of which has been declared by order of the war Department dated 31 October of the same year. In the decree, in particular said:
"The Emperor, bearing in mind that some regiments have already installed as a reward for military exploits insignia, Was set deign new highest honors: St. George ribbon on flags and banners with inscriptions differences that tape granted, in accordance with the enclosed description and picture. Tape these, constituting the identity of the banners and standards, and with them in any case can not be removed".
Until the end of the Russian Imperial army is rewarding broad St. George's ribbons only.
During the great Patriotic war, continuing the combat traditions of the Russian army, 8 November 1943, was established by the order of Glory of three degrees. Its Statute as well as yellow-black color tape, reminded of the St George's cross. Then the St. George ribbon, confirming the traditional colors of the Russian military prowess, was decorated with many soldiers and modern Russian medals and badges.
March 2, 1992 by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR "On state awards of the Russian Federation made a decision to restore the Russian military order of St. George and mark "George cross".
In the decree of the President of the Russian Federation of March 2, 1994, said, "In the system of state awards remain the military order of St. George and Mark of distinction - "George Cross".
Soldier George St.
The order of St. George 1850
The badge of the order of 3 for senior officers not of the Christian faith 1844
Georgievska medal "For bravery" 3 tbsp. 1878
Golden Narodnoe gun "For bravery"
THE DEGREE OF ORDER AND RULES OF WEARING
The order had four degrees:
1st degree: the star on the left chest and a large cross on the ribbon over the right shoulder, 700 rubles annual pension.
2nd degree: the star on the left chest and a large cross on a neck ribbon, 400 rubles annual pension.
3rd degree: a small cross on a neck ribbon, 200 rubles annual pension.
4th degree: a small cross in his lapel or on the block, 100 rubles of annual pension.
If people were awarded already available to it the order but of higher degree, the signs of lower degree were not worn and surrendered in a Chapter. In 1856, was allowed to wear at the same time the characters of all classes of the order of George.
From February to may of 1855 there was a variant of the order of 4-th degree with bow from St. George ribbon, which testified that his knight was awarded twice for years of service and later for the difference in battle.
For knights of the order was provided by "special kavalerstvennye attire, consisting in orange velvet supervise, with black wide superedi and behind the velvet as crosses; superfast trimmed all around with gold thread fringe"
The amount of pensions was limited to a fixed Foundation; received throughout life only those who were awarded first. Originally, the Fund paid a pension of 12 men of the 1st century 700 rubles, 25 men of the 2nd century 400 rubles, 50 men of the 3rd century 50 rubles and 100 men of the 4th century for 100 rubles.
From 1843 the order has changed, the number of holders of the 1st century it had fallen to 6 people, but the pension they rose up to 1000 rubles. Decreased the number of holders of the 2nd century retired from 25 to 15 people, the pension has not changed. Nothing has changed for the bearers of the 3rd degree. But the number of holders 4-th degree of the pension has increased by up to 325 people, their pension was increased to 150 rubles.
Awarded several degrees were entitled to a pension only to the highest degree. After the death of the gentleman his widow was obtained for him a pension for another year.
The order after the death of the owner surrendered to the Military Board (until 1856). It was forbidden to decorate insignia of precious stones.
The order was also given the privilege on the right of the entrance to public events together with colonels for knights of St. George 3rd and 4th classes, even if their rank was younger.
Knights of the order of St. George class I
Since the award of the order of highest degree of the lowest degree was not awarded, from 25 Cavaliers 1st degree only four people were full Cavaliers of the order of St. George (awarded all 4 degrees):
* Prince, field-Marshal M. I. Golenishchev-Kutuzov of Smolensk;
* Prince, field-Marshal M. B. Barclay de Tolly;
* count, field Marshal I. F. Paskevich of Erivan, the Prince of Warsaw;
* count, field Marshal I. I. Dibich-the Balkans.
Three people were awarded the order of St. George with the 3rd in the 1st degree:
* Prince, field-Marshal G. A. Potemkin Tauride;
* Prince Generalissimo A. C. Suvorov of Rymnik;
* Graf, General of cavalry L. L. Bennigsen.
Although formally in the order of precedence the order of St. George the 1st degree was lower than the highest order of St. Andrew, commanders valued it above all other awards.
- From a letter of the great commander A. C. Suvorov daughter from November 8, 1789:
[Received] St. marks. Andrew fifty thousand, Yes, above all, dear, the First class of St. George. That's what your daddy. For a good heart, just, right, joy died.
Know about the awarding George two women (after Catherine II). Of the order of 4-th degree was awarded:
* Maria Sophia Amalia, Queen of Both Sicily - February 21, 1861, "For courage during the siege of the fortress of Gaeta 12 November 1860, on the 13th of February, 1861";
* Rimma M. Ivanova (posthumously), sister of mercy - September 17, 1915, "For courage and devotion, rendered in a battle, when the death of all commanders took command of the company itself; after the battle, died of wounds". Dead nurse was awarded the order of the decree of Nicholas II, breaching the Statute of the order as an exception.
Golden arms "For bravery"
Marked differences, for their personal bravery and dedication has made the awarding of the Golden weapons - sword, dagger, and later by the sword.
One of the first known awards melee weapons refers to the Petrine era. June 27, 1720 Prince Golitsyn for the defeat of the Swedish fleet at the island of Grengam "in the sign of the military of his work sent a Golden sword with rich ornaments of diamonds."
In the future, there are many awards gold weapons with diamonds for generals, and without diamonds for officers with various honorary inscriptions ("For bravery", "courage", as well as some specific merit award).
St. George ribbon is awarded several distinctions, galemys military units: George silver trumpets, banners, banners, double buttonholes for "military honors" on the uniforms of the staff and chief officers, George buttonholes on the uniforms of the lower ranks and insignia on hats and his cap.
In 1806 the Russian army had entered award George's flags. In the top banner was placed George cross, under the topping was tied black and orange St. George ribbon with Znamenny brush width 1 inch (4.44 cm). The first George's flags were issued by the Kiev grenadiers, Chernihiv Dragoon, Pavlograd hussars and two of the don Cossack regiments for distinction in the campaign of 1805 with the inscription: "For feats when Hengrabari 4 November 1805 in the battle of 5 thousand housing with the enemy, consisting of 30 thousand"
In 1819, was established marine George stern flag. The first such flag got the linear ship "Azov", under the command of captain 1st rank M. P. Lazarev, distinguished himself in the battle of Navarino in 1827.
April 11, 1878 established a new mark of distinction - George ribbon on flags and banners with inscriptions differences that tape granted. These tapes got Nizhny Novgorod Seversky Dragoon regiments, already had all of George's insignia. Until the end of the Russian Imperial army is rewarding broad St. George's ribbons only.
In 1805 appeared another collective award - George pipes. They were made of silver but unlike silver trumpets, previously former award in the Russian army, on the body of the pipe was put George cross, which increased their rank as awards. On the casing pipes are often deposited inscription telling what the battle and the year in which the regiment has won the award. The pipe was attached officer George cross, and the knot of the ribbon of the order's colors with silver tassels. To 1816 were finally installed two versions of St. George pipe - infantry, curved several times and direct cavalry. Infantry regiment was usually rewarded with two pipes, cavalry - three for each squadron, and a special pipe regimental headquarters-the trumpeter. The first in the history of the Russian Empire, St. George pipes won the 6th Ranger regiment at the battle of Hengrabari. The body of each pipe was encircled by the inscription "For the feat when Hengrabari 4 November 1805 in the battle of 5 so the case with the enemy, consisting of 30 tons"
Day knights of St. George
From the founding of the Order of St. Great Martyr George the victorious on November 26, 1769 by Empress Catherine the great, this day has become a holiday knights of St. George, which was annually celebrated as when the Supreme Court, and in all those places where it happens knight Grand cross". The venue for the main ceremonies associated with the order, from the time of Catherine II became the Winter Palace. Meetings of the Board of the order of St. George gathered in St. George's hall. Annually, held receptions on the occasion of the order's feast, gala dinners used George porcelain set, created by the order of Catherine II (the Gardner factory, 1777-1778, the Last time St. George knights celebrated their award celebration on November 26, 1916
In addition to St. George's hall in the Winter, there is the St George hall of the Grand Kremlin Palace, the construction of which began in 1838 in the Moscow Kremlin by architect K. A. Ton. April 11, 1849, it was decided to perpetuate the names of the knights of St. George and the military units on marble slabs between the twisted columns of the hall. Today they posted more than 11 thousands of names of officers, awarded by different degrees of order from 1769 to 1885