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FIRST YEAR BABY / Feeding of newborns. Nutrition newborn.

1. What does it mean for a child feeding

2. Mode

3. How to feed

4. Quite whether he eats and good putting on weight

1. What does it mean for a child feeding

He knows more than you think.

The child, like any other person, has the instinct of hunger. If he is chronically undernourished, he will shout, demanding more milk. Trust him and talk to your doctor. If he hasn't finished his usual amount, do not insist.

Consider that he wakes up because he is hungry and cries, most likely because he wants to eat. He eagerly catches mouth, nipple (or pacifier). Sucking is a serious work for the child. He may even sweat from the effort. If you take away a pacifier before he was sated, he would be yelling at them. When he will suck as much milk as he wants, he will Solovey from satiety and again falls asleep. Even in sleep he makes sucking movements, as if he dreams that he is given, his face blissful expression. All of this suggests that food is the main joy in his life. The first view of life he receives from the environment in which it is feeding. The first idea about the people he receives from the person who feeds him.

If the mother is constantly insists that the child drank more milk than he wants, he will gradually lose their appetite. He will try to avoid it, falling asleep each time earlier and earlier, or will protest and to persist in their reluctance to eat. If this continues, then it is alive, joyful curiosity for life will disappear; as if he is thinking to himself: "Life is a struggle. These people do not give me rest. I must fight to protect themselves."

So, do not force your child to eat more than he wants. Let the food remains for him the pleasure, and then he will feel that you are his friend. It is very important for the development of his confidence and cheerfulness, the foundations of which are laid in the first year of life.

Sucking instinct.

Newborn vigorously sucks for two reasons. First, because he's hungry, and secondly, because he likes to suck. If you feed it enough, but don't give him the opportunity to satisfy the need to suck, it will suck your fist or your thumb, or clothing. It is very important that the feeding was quite long, and the number of feedings sufficient. Try not to let the baby accustomed to thumb sucking. Take action, when he is looking for - what would it suck.

In the first days after birth, children lose weight.

Some parents are overly concerned about this phenomenon. It seems unnatural and dangerous. They were also able to hear about dehydration in case of sudden weight loss. Don't worry. If this happens, then the newborn will immediately cure, giving him water. In maternity hospitals to prevent dehydration regularly watered newborn, especially if the mother has not yet appeared in the milk.

Some mothers unnecessarily worrying about weight loss in a child and thinking that they did not have enough milk, waive breast-feeding before you try to build it (in some maternity hospitals mothers simply do not report the weight of the baby, but then they can imagine something horrible). Mothers should understand that weight loss newborn absolutely natural phenomenon, and to trust the doctor.

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2. Mode

Child's doctor will explain what nutrition your child needs. It will depend on the child's weight, his appetite, his schedule of sleep and food requirements. The pediatrician will help you to establish a regime that will satisfy you and your child. Next I want to discuss only the General principles of nutrition.

What do you mean under strict and flexible regime.

Before children are usually kept on a very strict diet. A newborn weighing 3.5 kg were fed strictly 6.00, 10.00, 14.00, 18.00, 22.00 and 2.00, no sooner and no later, regardless of whether hungry or not. The doctors didn't have a clear understanding of the causes of severe gastric diseases, which annually amazed tens of thousands of newborns. It was believed that these diseases were caused not only by bacteria that enter the milk (for example, on dairy farms contained in unsanitary conditions, or due to the lack of refrigerators, or when antilegionella the home), but irregular in amount and time of food intake.

The doctors were so afraid of irregular power supply that came, eventually, to his condemnation from a psychological point of view. They assured mothers that the irregularity in the diet leads to a spoiled child. The most zealous advocates of strict regime advised mothers to come to the child only in well-defined meal times, and at other times not to pay any attention to him. Some insisted that children did not kiss and not caressed, as it supposedly can spoil.

Most children have adapted to the strict regime, as they could drink enough milk, so as not to feel hungry for the next 4 hours; it usually works the digestive tract of the newborn. People quickly get used to everything at any age. If we are to feed always just set the watch, it is in these hours and we will feel the hunger.

But there were always children, which was very difficult to adapt to a strict regime in the first months. These are children whose stomachs could not hold the amount of milk, enough for a 4-hour break, or those who fall asleep, not having enough, or restless children, or those who were tormented by gases. They desperately cried for several hours a day, but their mother did not dare to feed them or even take his hands out of schedule. The poor child had a hard life, but even worse was his mother, who heard the cry of her child, biting my nails from despair, soul tried to comfort him, but did not dare to disobey the doctor, who assured that strict mode - the key to health and happiness of the child. Today's mothers are lucky the doctors allowed them to follow their natural aspirations.

Moreover, severe stomach disorders are quite rare, due to pasteurization, its proper storage and hygienic care of the child. Many years passed before the doctors decided to try to adopt a flexible schedule feeding. When have conducted a large number of observations, it was found that the irregularity in the diet did not lead to gastrointestinal disorders or indigestion, or even to the spoiled, as many had feared.

How to build mode.

It is important not to force the child to cry for too long. He does not object to the Wake after 3-4 hours after the last feeding. Each child can get used to the regime and it will happen soon, if the mother will help him. In addition, the intervals between feedings increase with increasing weight of the child.

The baby, weighing from 2.5 kg to 3 kg, usually needs to be fed 3-hour period, and when the weight of 4-4,5 kg children usually enough feedings with a 4-hour break. Most children begin to do without a night feed after 1-2 months. Between the fourth and eighth months, children begin to prefer the 5-hour interval and at the same time they stop waking up for night feedings.

The mother can help the child in his quest for regular feedings and reduce their number. Waking him at 4 hours after the last feeding, the mother teaches the child the habit of a 4-hour period in power. If two hours after the last feeding, the child begins to whine, don't get around to it some time, give him the opportunity to fall back asleep. If he continues to cry, give him water or pacifier. Thus, you will help his stomach to adapt to longer intervals in the diet. If the mother will immediately feed the child as soon as it is put into motion, even if after the last feeding in less than 2 hours, thus, it saves it a habit to eat smaller portions and short intervals.

Different children need different time to get used to regular meals. The majority of children the age of one month goes on the 4-hour interval in the diet and skip the night feeding, if they get enough milk during the day and if they are well suck and relatively quiet. On the other hand, if the child in the first days inert and falls asleep in the middle of feeding or, on the contrary, he is restless and often wakes up crying, or if the mother initially insufficient breast milk, and you and your child will be better not to hurry with the establishment of strict regime. But even in this case, mothers should very gradually and gently accustom the child to a more regular diet with an interval of 4 hours.

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3. How to feed

Sometimes between the 4th and 7th month of life the child behaves strangely during feeding.

The mother says that he greedily sucks the breast or nipple for several minutes, and then suddenly releases it and cries as if in pain. He was still hungry, but every time he again takes the nipple (or nipple), let it all before, and crying. But he willingly eating solid food. I think this is caused by the growth of teeth. It can be assumed that in the process of sucking the gums, inside of which is already growing teeth are also involved in part in the General movement of the muscles of the mouth, which causes them unbearably ticklish sensation. Therefore, in order to help the child, you alternately give him milk and solid food, because a few minutes he still sucks still. If it sucks from a bottle, you can enlarge the hole in the nipple so that he had time for a short time to suck more milk (but don't use nipples with large holes until everything is in order, otherwise you will not be satisfied the need for the child to suck). If he starts to cry too soon after the start of sucking, don't let him suck at all for several days. Poite it from a Cup, if it happens, or a spoon, or add more milk to cereal and other foods. Don't worry if he doesn't get his usual amount of milk. He compensates for his lack of later.

It happens that the child refuses to take the breast when the mother's menstruation. Poite it in these days of nipples. But she should suck milk from the breast, so that his stock was reduced. If after menstruation mother will immediately cease to give the child a pacifier, he returned to the chest and the amount of breast milk will be restored.

Ear disease after a cold can cause pain throughout the jaw, and then the child will refuse to suck, but be able to eat solid food.

Trigiani.

All children, when you drink, swallow a little air. This air collects in the stomach and causes anxiety to the child. Some children are forced to discontinue food, while others do not stop until you drink all the milk. There are two basic ways to help your child be exempted from swallowing air. Select the one that you prefer.

First method: put the baby on his knees, holding his back, and gently stroke his tummy. Second - keep the child in his arms so that his head was laying on your shoulder, and gently pohlopyvaya or Pat him on the back. Put on the shoulder of a napkin or diaper if he will vomit a little milk. Some children regurgitate the air quickly and easily, while others are more difficult. If the air is not immediately place the child for a moment, and then lift again, it sometimes helps.

If a child swallowed so much air that is forced to stop there, let him regurgitate, and then continue feeding. At the end of each feeding it is necessary to give the child a chance to belch. If you put him in the crib before he will regurgitate, then after a while the air in the stomach starts to bother him. Some children are even pain. On the other hand, if your child is unwell belches air, but he is not worried about it you can hold it for a few minutes in a vertical position, and then put in the crib.

Here I want to mention one more fact which bothers many young mothers. The child, Vysocanska full serving of milk, abdomen strongly swells. This is because the amount of milk he drinks at once, much higher than the size of his stomach.

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4. Quite whether he eats and good putting on weight

The child usually knows how much food it needs.

If he does not have enough milk, or if the mother was less milk due to fatigue or nervousness, the child each time to Wake up all early and hungry cry cry, which you are already familiar. He will drink the milk to the last drop and look for the mouth again and will try to suck your Cam. If you weigh it, then make sure that he gains weight less than before. Some children from malnutrition begins constipation. If the child is very hungry, he may start to cry immediately after feeding.

Seeing these signs, talk to your doctor, do not increase if you milk. It would be reasonable to give the baby more milk, if he drinks the best. But be careful, do not insist, if he does not want more milk than usual. If you are breastfeeding, and he wakes up early, feed him, even if it will lead to more feeding on this day. More frequent emptying of the breast will stimulate the production of more milk, if the mother is capable of it. If you've been feeding one breast, now let's both.

How much the child needs to gain weight.

The correct answer is: the child himself knows how much to put on weight. If you give more milk than you need, he refuses. If you give less, to the next feeding he wakes up earlier and sucks his fist. When people talk about the weight gain, mean average numbers, but every child gains weight differently.

Calculating averages, the doctors put the greatest weight gain with the smallest, and divide. Some children gain weight than others and that's okay. However, slow weight gain may mean that the child is malnourished or sick. If your child is slowly putting on weight, then the more you should regularly show it to your doctor to be sure that he is healthy. There are children who are slow to gain weight, but do not show signs of hunger. However, if you will give them more milk, they will be willing to drink it and gain weight faster. In other words, the child does not always shouts when he lacks milk. On average, children are born with a weight of 3.5 kg, and by 5 months the weight is 7 kg, i.e. doubled. But practically children born with low birth weight, gain weight faster, as if trying to catch up with their larger brethren. And the larger child may not double your weight to 5 months. The average child adds about 900 grams per month in the first 3 months (160-200 g / week). Of course, some healthy children gain weight less, others more. To 6 months, the average weight gain is reduced to 500 grams per month (100-120 g per week). From 9 th to 12-th month of life, the average weight gain is further reduced to 300 g per month (60-80 g / week). And in the second year of life the child usually adds 200-250 g per month. The older a child becomes, the slower and more regular, he gains weight. When the baby grow teeth, usually the appetite deteriorates and within a few weeks, he may not be gaining weight. When he is healthy, appetite comes back to him and the weight grows faster.

Change the baby's weight from week to week is not what it says. The weight of each weighing depends on the fullness of his stomach, bladder or bowel. If one morning you will be weighed and you will see that it gained only 100 g for the last week, whereas before it was added 200 grams, do not conclude that he is undernourished or sick. If your child healthy, happy look, wait a week or two - maybe next week it will add more weight. But always remember that the older he gets, the slower it adds weight.

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Benjamin Spock's "Baby and care for it"

Additional materials:
Newborn - physiological features Newborn - physiological features

Children are born with a full set of muscles, but, like everything else, they have to Mature. This happens in the same order in which reach functional maturity nerves, they - run: starting with the muscles of the neck and going on down the trunk and towards the fingers. As they reach maturity changes and their structure. Mature muscles contain less water and more protein and minerals than immature, which provide additional strength and endurance.

Features of the body of the newborn Features of the baby's body

So, the baby was born. From the moment of birth until the cutting of the umbilical cord, the child stops directly in contact with the mother's body and begins the neonatal period, which lasts about one month. During this time the baby adapts to completely different for him the environment. During this period significant changes in his body. Some organs and systems worked during the prenatal period (heart, kidneys, endocrine glands, other respiratory organs and digestive system begin to function from the moment the baby is born.

Why is the baby crying? Baby crying Why is the baby crying? A baby crying.

A baby crying can be divided into various types, ranging from easy whining (usually just before falling asleep to thunder - Kim cry for several hours. It is understandable that when your baby cries, you wspolna - Vanir and scared. Also babies cry for a variety of reasons. When they are very young, this is the only way they can Express their needs.

Child care Child care

Usually mothers find it helpful to bathe the child in front of a 10-hour evening feeding. However, it is possible to bathe before any feeding (but not after it, as after feeding the child usually falls asleep). Many fathers gladly bathe their children over 6-hour or 10-hour evening feeding. When the child becomes older and will go to sleep immediately after dinner, you can bathe him before going to sleep. That the child did not feel hunger, until you give him a bath, give him before bathing juice. To bathe the child needs in a warm room, for example in the kitchen.

Bathing a newborn Bathing a newborn

Bathing a newborn not only supports the baby's skin clean, but has a good tempering effect. Until the baby is healed umbilical wound, bathing wipe it with a soft, damp sponge. The procedure is done in a warm room, in a convenient conditions, for example, on a special table Mat or just on his knees. The main thing is that the position of the newborn was safe and easy to communicate with him. Prepare baby soap, gentle baby shampoo, two napkins, soft towel, cotton swabs and clothing. When rubbing your baby sponge water should be pleasantly warm. The left hand slightly lift up the child, holding under the crown, and the right - wipe, starting from the top.

How to deal with a newborn How to deal with a newborn

The most difficult task facing a newborn baby during the first month of his life, to adapt to conditions outside the mother's body. Most of the time the baby is sleeping. Waking up, he starts to behave in accordance with their internal physiological state. Periods of active wakefulness, when the child is ready to take new information, rare and short-lived. Therefore it is not necessary to pre-plan lessons with a newborn, just try to seize the opportunity. This option appears when the baby is fed and is in a good mood. Remember that children have different thresholds of excitability, and if you periotome baby, he may start to worry, to scream and cry.

The food of the newborn The food of the newborn

The child, like any other person, has the instinct of hunger. If he is chronically undernourished, he will shout, demanding more milk. Trust him and talk to your doctor. If he hasn't finished his usual amount, do not insist. Consider that he wakes up because he is hungry and cries, most likely because he wants to eat. He eagerly catches mouth, nipple (or pacifier). Sucking is a serious work for the child. He may even sweat from the effort. If you take away a pacifier before he was sated, he would be yelling at them. When he will suck as much milk as he wants, he will Solovey from satiety and again falls asleep.

The introduction of solid foods in the diet of the child The introduction of solid foods in the diet of the child

Fifty years ago it was introduced only after a year. Then doctors began to try to introduce it earlier and earlier and found that children readily accept this food and she has a beneficial effect. For two reasons it makes sense to start giving solid food to a child in the first half of the first year. At this age children are still there, and being older, they become more selective. Solid food contains nutrients, especially iron, which little or no milk.

Complementary feeding for children aged 6 months Complementary feeding for children aged 6 months

Fifty years ago it was introduced only after a year. Then doctors began to try to introduce it earlier and earlier and found that children readily accept this food and she has a beneficial effect. For two reasons it makes sense to start giving solid food to a child in the first half of the first year. At this age children are still there, and being older, they become more selective. Solid food contains nutrients, especially iron, which little or no milk.

The lure. The who guidelines on breastfeeding The lure. The who guidelines on breastfeeding

Timely introduction of properly selected foods promotes good health, to improve nutritional status and physical development of infants and young children in a period of rapid growth and therefore should be the focus of the health system.

The child learns about feelings The child learns about feelings

Children who are more difficult to adapt to new conditions, or less constant in their habits, demonstrate more wary, are" less willing to smile and willing to try new foods or to meet new people or places. Difficult children are fickle habits. Even in ten years, such a child may not develop the habit of going to bed.

The choice of a Walker The choice of a Walker

There are two main types of precursory those in which children sit, and such that kids are pushing. First, for those children who are not able to move independently, the latter which often resemble small truck or can be converted into a tricycle - for those children who are already starting to walk, holding onto a support. Baby Walker - item optional, and many experts believe that the harm outweighs its benefits.

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