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FIRST YEAR / Physiological characteristics of infants
Structural features of the body of a newborn child, in particular: the immune system, brain, body temperature, breathing, muscles, bones, teeth - detailed description on Your website rebenok!

Growth: For the first birthday of a newborn is growing at 25-30 see

Baby's weight: Doubles the initial body weight for four-five months; triples your weight for 12-14 months.

Brain: the fastest growing organ in the body of the child.

The skeleton: Bones are very flexible at birth, but with age, the flexibility decreases.

Muscles: at First, the muscles weak and watery, but when using change their structure and volume.

Circulation: the Heart becomes stronger and more effective blood pressure decreases.

Digestion: Food is only partially digested, often regurgitation; to six months, the efficiency of the digestive system increases.

Immune system: the child's Body slowly produces its own antibodies to replace those that were handed down to him from his mother in the uterus; maternal antibodies are also transmitted in breast milk.

The ability of the lungs Increases, the lungs become sensitive to irritation; gradually the child learns to combine breath and movement.

The teeth Erupt between six months and three years.

Changes occurring in the body of the child in the first year of his life, amazing; almost all changes in size and structure.

Digestion in the newborn

If children were raised as nature intended, they probably fed almost exclusively with breast milk for at least the next two years. Until their digestive system is still immature. It is detected based on the study of children's stools: in the first year a considerable part of what the child is eating, not digested his body and comes in its original form. Some don't even have a chair, as most children belches back some food. Regurgitation decreases with age and usually ceases to six months. Digestion promote "friendly" bacteria that inhabit the intestines in the first few weeks.

The body temperature of the newborn

If you become too hot, you sweat stands out, and the blood begins to flow in the small blood vessels under the skin (what the skin is red). Evaporation of sweat from the skin surface then lowers the temperature of your body. You can also help the cause, moving under cover or ceasing to do active movements. If you are cold, you do not sweat, and the outflow of blood from the surface to the center of the body, where the temperature is higher. You begin to tremble, make vigorous movements and all that retains heat, for example, wear something from the service.

Small children are not able to do all this, which is why they can not control their body temperature until they are 12 to 18 months. The smaller the child, the worse it controls the body temperature.

The breath of a newborn. As a newborn breathes?

If you compare how it breathes very small child, how you breathe, you will notice two differences. The first difference is obvious: the child uses the abdominal muscles, while you are using the chest and diaphragm. The second difference is less noticeable. Adults breathe in two different ways, one is automatic and depends on the nature of gases in the lungs (oxygen and carbon dioxide). This is what prevents you from endlessly to hold your breath. When the oxygen content falls below a certain level, you have to inhale. The second method is arbitrary and to a certain extent can suppress automatic. This is what allows you to dial a breath before speaking, or take a deep breath before you dive from a springboard. This allows you to eat without the food was "not in the throat", or to speak without interruption PA the middle of a sentence to make a sigh.

Newborn babies do not know how to breathe. They are not able to breathe and eat, because choking during feeding. In General they inhale slowly and exhale quickly. To 6 - 12 weeks they begin a little to control his breathing, and the way the breath is changed, so that now they inhale quickly and exhale slowly. You will notice that it will change the manner of a crying child, making it more melodic. As the child begins to combine breath and movement, he is now longer move my arms and legs. (If you remember how hard it was to learn to swim, until you have learned how to combine breath and movement, you will empathize with young children who are not able to alternate breathing and steps.)

It may seem simple, but it is the basis of your ability to speak and move. It is believed that children learn to breathe by way of quick breath and slowly exhale", following your manner to breathe when you pressed the child to her breast. Subsequently, they learn to combine, coordinate breath and movement, working with his hands and legs in the crib.

Teething newborns

An adult has 32 teeth, while the child only 20. One child at 1500 has at the birth of the tooth, the more often children have teeth only to the first birthday. In different families teething occurs at different times, but most children's first teeth erupt between five and seven months. Subsequent teeth erupt relatively quickly. Shortly before they erupt, you will notice little white spots under the gums of the child. Before you erupt, they form a pale bumps on the gums.

When the child nor capricious, the reason you see that the baby cut teeth, but because the teeth 20, usually it's not them. Except for a brief period when the teeth erupt through the gums, there is no particular reason to believe that the growth of teeth passes more painful than bone growth. Because during puberty teenagers often complain of "growing pains" - and similarly capricious, is much more likely that children act up because of the growing, not because they cut the teeth.

Feel unhappy one, and to be sick is quite another. Disease in young children very quickly gets out of control and should not remain without attention. Teething does not cause fever, diarrhea, vomiting, or seizures. These symptoms should not be attributed to the cutting teeth.

The bones of the newborn

At birth the bones in children soft, consist mainly of cartilage, which makes them very flexible. After the birth of bones deposited minerals that cause them to harden. It begins before birth and continues until the end of the adolescent age faster in girls than in boys, and black children than in children with fair skin. This is one reason why girls start to walk sooner than boys, and why black children are more physically developed than other children.

The muscles of the newborn

Children are born with a full set of muscles, but, like everything else, they have to Mature. This happens in the same order in which reach functional maturity nerves, they - run: starting with the muscles of the neck and going on down the trunk and towards the fingers. As they reach maturity changes and their structure. Mature muscles contain less water and more protein and minerals than immature, which provide additional strength and endurance.

Upstairs...

Additional materials:
Newborn - physiological features Newborn - physiological features

Children are born with a full set of muscles, but, like everything else, they have to Mature. This happens in the same order in which reach functional maturity nerves, they - run: starting with the muscles of the neck and going on down the trunk and towards the fingers. As they reach maturity changes and their structure. Mature muscles contain less water and more protein and minerals than immature, which provide additional strength and endurance.

Features of the body of the newborn Features of the baby's body

So, the baby was born. From the moment of birth until the cutting of the umbilical cord, the child stops directly in contact with the mother's body and begins the neonatal period, which lasts about one month. During this time the baby adapts to completely different for him the environment. During this period significant changes in his body. Some organs and systems worked during the prenatal period (heart, kidneys, endocrine glands, other respiratory organs and digestive system begin to function from the moment the baby is born.

Why is the baby crying? Baby crying Why is the baby crying? A baby crying.

A baby crying can be divided into various types, ranging from easy whining (usually just before falling asleep to thunder - Kim cry for several hours. It is understandable that when your baby cries, you wspolna - Vanir and scared. Also babies cry for a variety of reasons. When they are very young, this is the only way they can Express their needs.

Child care Child care

Usually mothers find it helpful to bathe the child in front of a 10-hour evening feeding. However, it is possible to bathe before any feeding (but not after it, as after feeding the child usually falls asleep). Many fathers gladly bathe their children over 6-hour or 10-hour evening feeding. When the child becomes older and will go to sleep immediately after dinner, you can bathe him before going to sleep. That the child did not feel hunger, until you give him a bath, give him before bathing juice. To bathe the child needs in a warm room, for example in the kitchen.

Bathing a newborn Bathing a newborn

Bathing a newborn not only supports the baby's skin clean, but has a good tempering effect. Until the baby is healed umbilical wound, bathing wipe it with a soft, damp sponge. The procedure is done in a warm room, in a convenient conditions, for example, on a special table Mat or just on his knees. The main thing is that the position of the newborn was safe and easy to communicate with him. Prepare baby soap, gentle baby shampoo, two napkins, soft towel, cotton swabs and clothing. When rubbing your baby sponge water should be pleasantly warm. The left hand slightly lift up the child, holding under the crown, and the right - wipe, starting from the top.

How to deal with a newborn How to deal with a newborn

The most difficult task facing a newborn baby during the first month of his life, to adapt to conditions outside the mother's body. Most of the time the baby is sleeping. Waking up, he starts to behave in accordance with their internal physiological state. Periods of active wakefulness, when the child is ready to take new information, rare and short-lived. Therefore it is not necessary to pre-plan lessons with a newborn, just try to seize the opportunity. This option appears when the baby is fed and is in a good mood. Remember that children have different thresholds of excitability, and if you periotome baby, he may start to worry, to scream and cry.

The food of the newborn The food of the newborn

The child, like any other person, has the instinct of hunger. If he is chronically undernourished, he will shout, demanding more milk. Trust him and talk to your doctor. If he hasn't finished his usual amount, do not insist. Consider that he wakes up because he is hungry and cries, most likely because he wants to eat. He eagerly catches mouth, nipple (or pacifier). Sucking is a serious work for the child. He may even sweat from the effort. If you take away a pacifier before he was sated, he would be yelling at them. When he will suck as much milk as he wants, he will Solovey from satiety and again falls asleep.

The introduction of solid foods in the diet of the child The introduction of solid foods in the diet of the child

Fifty years ago it was introduced only after a year. Then doctors began to try to introduce it earlier and earlier and found that children readily accept this food and she has a beneficial effect. For two reasons it makes sense to start giving solid food to a child in the first half of the first year. At this age children are still there, and being older, they become more selective. Solid food contains nutrients, especially iron, which little or no milk.

Complementary feeding for children aged 6 months Complementary feeding for children aged 6 months

Fifty years ago it was introduced only after a year. Then doctors began to try to introduce it earlier and earlier and found that children readily accept this food and she has a beneficial effect. For two reasons it makes sense to start giving solid food to a child in the first half of the first year. At this age children are still there, and being older, they become more selective. Solid food contains nutrients, especially iron, which little or no milk.

The lure. The who guidelines on breastfeeding The lure. The who guidelines on breastfeeding

Timely introduction of properly selected foods promotes good health, to improve nutritional status and physical development of infants and young children in a period of rapid growth and therefore should be the focus of the health system.

The child learns about feelings The child learns about feelings

Children who are more difficult to adapt to new conditions, or less constant in their habits, demonstrate more wary, are" less willing to smile and willing to try new foods or to meet new people or places. Difficult children are fickle habits. Even in ten years, such a child may not develop the habit of going to bed.

The choice of a Walker The choice of a Walker

There are two main types of precursory those in which children sit, and such that kids are pushing. First, for those children who are not able to move independently, the latter which often resemble small truck or can be converted into a tricycle - for those children who are already starting to walk, holding onto a support. Baby Walker - item optional, and many experts believe that the harm outweighs its benefits.

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