Kindergarten - educational institution for children of preschool age (usually from 3 to 7 years), in the Russian Federation one of the types of preschool children
The system of kindergartens is intended for primary socialization of children, teaching them the skills to communicate with peers, and mass public solutions to the problem of employment of their parents (for which the time of kindergarten work in most cases coincides with the typical work schedule of most professions: from 8 to 18 hours five days a week). In the system of kindergartens is also minimal training children to school - at the level of the primary skills of reading, writing and accounts.
Kindergartens can be state, municipal and private. A visit in Russia is not mandatory for children.
What are kindergartens?
First, municipal, i.e. the district. They are of two types: the gardens and nursery-gardens. In the last take children from 1.5 years, and in kindergartens from the age of 3, although there are exceptions, when kids enter only 4-5 years. Nursery-gardens nowadays have little, therefore, to hold a child up to 3 years in a decent manger is very problematic. In malyshevka" usually 15 children in the middle group 20 and older 25 people. Refers to the average number of children in the group, but actually visits the kindergarten about half. In addition, municipal gardens can be divided into those in which the payment is 84 ruble and those in which payment from 500-1000 rubles per month, including additional lessons. However, in those gardens where the payment is only 84 rubles, parents have to pay for extra classes, usually in the amount of 100 rubles per month for each subject, and periodically put 200-300 rubles for the purchase of toys for the children and gifts staff of the kindergarten. In addition, many institutions require payment of an entrance fee, the amount of which varies from 100 to 1000 dollars.
Municipal kindergartens are one of the educational programs of pre-school education. The program must include: familiarity with the environment (objects near environment, nature, the phenomena of life); games (role-playing, moving, didactic); language development (vocabulary, teaching pronunciation, matching words, oral narration); familiarity with the literature (paraphrase reading, reading, memorizing); familiarity with basic mathematical concepts; learning the basics of fine art (painting, sculpting, appliqué design) music lessons (music, singing, musical-rhythmic movement); athletic training.
Municipal kindergartens is the gardens of our childhood. Very much depends on the head. Under equal conditions some of the famous gardens of the whole area and they tend to get all. In the public garden there is a "General education program". The activities of the kindergarten is strictly controlled by a higher authority (Department, Department of education). Some gardens provide value added services, from which You have the right to refuse.
Pros municipal kindergarten:
- Little cost, the existence of privileged categories (mom alone a mother of many children, a widow, educators and so on).
- Proximity to home. Doctors do not recommend to carry a child in kindergarten, if it takes more than 20 minutes.
Cons municipal kindergarten:
- Too large groups (25 - 30 people).
- The quality of the supervision, care and practice at high occupancy rates suffer.
- Not always in the garden there are highly qualified specialists and the necessary number of personnel due to low salaries.
- The absence of any delicacies in the food. If the child does not like some dish, it can remain hungry until the next meal.
- "The lack, or low occupancy of good kindergarten teaching AIDS, games, equipment, etc.
Select municipal kindergarten:
- To enroll in kindergarten better and several, especially if You live in the new area. In new areas it is better to do immediately after the birth of a child, otherwise You risk nothing to get.
- Learn how in selected kindergarten is the adaptation of children who had not attended kindergarten.
- Learn mode of operation of the kindergarten. All public gardens 12-hour, 14-hour or hour (five-day). There is a mode of short-term stay. If teachers require parents to take the child in 17 hours - it's their own personal initiative, which they are not entitled. The so-called "short days" is also a violation of the law, the kindergarten should work equally on all working days.
- Note the number of children in the group and the number of teachers. According to the Model regulations on the DOW, in the group should be no more than 20 children, two teachers - one in the first shift and one in the second, but also a nurse. In the municipal gardens are often found violations of this provision.
The second type of gardens - departmental. They are already the children are divided into two groups: those guys whose stay paid by the company, which operates one of the parents, and those kids whose parents pay for their child's stay at the established institution rates. The cost ranges from 500 to 5-6 thousand rubles per month. Sometimes moms and dads take the entrance fee. Traditionally in departmental gardens the living conditions of children better than municipal, as well as better nutrition, fewer children in the group, more extra-curricular activities. Of course, the General rule there are exceptions: it all depends on how rich a particular office. For example, the system of kindergartens Academy of Sciences includes different kindergartens: some of them have extra classes in the other pool, and some have nothing. However, one advantage of all the gardens of this system is the small number of children in a group of 10-12 people.
Departmental kindergartens are not controlled directly by the education authorities, their programs and orders are determined by those enterprises and organizations, in whose office is kindergarten. Such gardens are more expensive, but for children of employees of the company price is significantly lower. Departmental gardens is now a little, and their number is decreasing, because not every organization can afford such luxury, as the content of the kindergarten.
Pros departmental kindergarten:
- Relatively small (compared to municipal kindergarten) the number of children in the group.
- The best conditions for children (compared to municipal kindergarten).
- A more varied menu.
- Better technical and material support.
Cons departmental kindergarten:
- Not always such a garden is next to the house.
- Quite high payment (two thousand rubles per month).
- There may be difficulties with the enrollment of children from outside.
Select departmental kindergarten:
- Check availability at garden state certification and license.
- Note how well provided the social base of the company, whose office is garden.
A third option preschools are private kindergartens. They belong to one or more individuals. Accordingly, their level depends on the organizational skills of those to whom they belong. Some of the frequent gardens created on the basis of the state, i.e. are in the same building, but provide the larger range of services. Others occupy a separate building and work with children in their program.
Private gardens are perfect in the absence of financial difficulties. They are, as a rule, until 20:00 - 21:00 or around the clock. In the private gardens are very intense and rich program development. Private gardens, as a rule, are well stocked with games, toys, learning materials, visual AIDS, etc. Private gardens not afford to hire low-skilled specialists. Control of non-state DOE by using licensing, accreditation, certification programs and certification of teachers.
The advantages of a private kindergarten:
- A small number of children in the group (from 5 to 10 people) - each child gets sufficient attention.
- Varied and tasty meals (possibly customized menus for Your child).
- Individual approach to children, which gives an opportunity to reveal their abilities. In each group, several teachers, for the development and health of children see speech therapists, psychologists, speech pathologists, physicians, etc.
- Parents have the right to influence the educational process - for example, through the Board of Trustees. In particular, they can inspect the kitchen, to attend classes, etc.
- Many private gardens are the "kindergarten - school".
Cons private kindergarten:
- High cost (from 350 euros per month). If Your child was sick paid for the month, not every private kindergarten will return your money.
- Not always private garden is located next to the house.
- Sometimes the desire to please my parents for their own money does harm to the educational process.
Choose a private kindergarten:
- Note the proximity of the garden to the house, in some gardens there is a transfer of children to institutions and back.
- Read the license for educational activity, the Charter of the institution and the contract. Learn what is the kindergarten document on the area which it occupies at the moment. The contract should contain a range of services, terms of payment and the mode of stay of the child in the kindergarten. All rights and obligations of the parties should be clearly stated and included in the contract.
- Check out the menu. Inspect the premises, toys, walks, pay attention to the communication of teachers with children.
- Learn about the program and the techniques that are used in the garden. Find out what the school is focused kindergarten is a private or a General.
- You can ask questions about the education and training of the employees of the garden. In a good garden You will proudly talk about their employees and show their diplomas.
- Learn mode nurse and doctor.
- Note the term kindergarten: five years in our time is already a considerable period.
Now about country preschool: there kid stays from Monday to Friday. Shipping kids is centralised on the bus on Monday and Friday from various metro stations. Such gardens are institutional and private, the price of staying in them ranges from 200 to 500 dollars a month. There is sure to spend extra classes, there is usually a pool, and most importantly, the kids have a whole day in the fresh air.
A separate call - home gardens. To them, the majority of parents are very skeptical. Their cost is very high from $ 250 and conditions leave much to be desired. Judge for yourself: classes with the kids in all subjects is conducted by one and the same person, and prepares them food. If the products in the state and even private kindergartens are very strict control, in this case, it is not at all. The only advantage of such a garden is a small number of children in a group of about 5 people.
Home daycare (family daycare) - views private kindergarten. Usually it contains in his apartment the couple or the founders of rent the room in which there is a games and bedroom. Invited teacher, nurse, cook, teachers, or the mistress of the family kindergarten does everything itself.
Advantages of home kindergarten:
- Conditions children stay close to home.
- A small number of children (3 to 10 people).
- Individual approach to training, education and nutrition of each child.
Cons of home kindergarten:
- Quite a high price.
- Possible problems with the shortage of equipment or facilities.
Selection rules of the kindergarten are the same as when choosing any private kindergarten.
And finally - specialized kindergartens. They are designed for children with various disorders: speech, vision, hearing, mental retardation. However, if in the Soviet Union from such gardens parents tried to stay away, unless it was to that particular testimony, now on the contrary all by hook or by crook trying to get their kids in such institutions. This fact can be easily explained: specialized gardens are the same as municipal (84 rubles), but the number of children in the group is very small - 10-12 people. Accordingly, they paid more attention, and in addition, the services of a speech therapist now are very expensive (about 100 rubles per hour), and for many parents, logopedic kindergarten is the only way to ensure the child such classes.